Prime Minister of India and the President of Pakistan signed a treaty
at Simla in July 1972 to provide a common understanding between
the two countries after the war they had fought the previous year.
In Pakistan, it was seen at that time as an achievement of President
Zulfikar Ali Bhutto since he succeeded in retrieving the areas that
the Indian army had occupied in the West Pakistan.
The agreement also provided a basis for the subsequent
release of the Pakistani prisoners of war from India (some 90,000
soldiers), although it did not contain an explicit commitment at
this point - such commitment was difficult because the captured
soldiers were generally accused by the Indian and international
press of having committed war crimes (the demand for their trial
under Geneva Convention was later withdrawn).
July 2, 1972
The Government of Pakistan and Government of
India are resolved that the two countries put an end to the conflict
and confrontation that have hitherto marred their relations and
work for the promotion of a friendly and harmonious relationship
and the establishment of durable peace in the subcontinent, so that
both countries may henceforth devote their resources and energies
to the pressing task of advancing the welfare of their people.
In order to achieve this objective, the Government
of Pakistan and the Government of India have agreed as follows:
i) That the principles and purposes of the Charter
of the United Nations shall govern the relations between the two
ii) That the two countries are resolved to settle
their differences by peaceful means through bilateral negotiations
or by any other peaceful means mutually agreed upon between them.
Pending the final settlement of any of the problems between the
two countries, neither side shall unilaterally alter the situation
and both shall prevent the organization, assistance and encouragement
of any acts detrimental to the maintenance of peaceful and harmonious
iii) That the pre-requisite for reconciliation,
good neighbourliness and durable peace between them is a commitment
by both the countries to peaceful co-existence, respect for each
others territorial integrity; and sovereignty and non-interference
in each other's internal affairs, on the basis of equality and
iv) That the basic issues and causes of conflict
which have bedeviled the relations between the two countries for
the last 25 years shall be resolved by peaceful means;
v) That they shall always respect each others
national unity, territorial integrity, political independence
and sovereign equality;
vi) That in accordance with the Charter of
the United Nations they will refrain from the threat or use of
force against the territorial integrity or political independence
of each other.
Both Governments will take all steps within their
power to prevent hostile propaganda directed against each other.
Both countries will encourage the dissemination of such information
as would promote the development of friendly relations between them.
In order progressively to restore and normalize relations
between the two countries step by step, it was agreed that:
i) Steps shall be taken to resume communications
postal, telegraphic, sea, land including border posts, and air
links including overflights.
ii) Appropriate steps shall be taken to promote
travel facilities for the nationals of the other countries.
iii) Trade and co-operation in economic and other
agreed fields will be resumed as far as possible.
iv) Exchange in the fields of science and
culture will be promoted.
In this connection delegations from the two countries
will meet from time to time to work out the necessary details.
In order to initiate the process of the establishment
of durable peace, both the Governments agree that:
i) Pakistani and Indian forces shall be withdrawn
to their side of the international border.
ii) In Jammu and Kashmir, the Line of Control resulting
from the cease-fire of December 17, 1971 shall be respected by
both sides without prejudice to the recognized position of either
side. Neither side shall seek to alter it unilaterally irrespective
of mutual differences and legal interpretations. Both sides further
undertake to refrain from threat or the use of force in violation
of this Line.
iii) The withdrawals shall commence upon entry into
force of this Agreement and shall be completed within a period
of 30 days thereof.
Both governments agree that their respective Heads
will meet again at a mutually convenient time in the future and
that, in the meanwhile, the representatives of the two sides will
meet to discuss further the modalities and arrangements for the
establishment of durable peace and normalization of relations, including
the questions of repatriation of prisoners of war and civilian,
resumption of diplomatic relations.
Zulfiqar Ali Bhutto
Islamic Republic of Pakistan
Republic of India
Simla, the 2nd July, 1972
Source: Source: The
Official Website of the Government of Pakistan
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